I made a video about how I started making games!
Also I should have mentioned in it: I studied Computing Science.
I made a video about designing enemies for Epic Battle Fantasy 5 and other RPGs.
I’m gonna try to do a lot more of these on different topics, so follow me on YouTube if you care.
Also, feedback is appreciated!
A few days ago I was interviewed live by Simon from Berzerk Studios.
The full video is up on YouTube now: It’s 100 minutes of us talking about Flash game development.
Watch it (or just listen to it) if you want wisdom, or if you want to cringe at my social awkwardness.
I’m doing a Livestream talk thing with Simon from Berzerk Studio on Twitch, at 3pm EST (in 90 minutes). You can watch us talk about game dev stuff and ask questions in the chat. We will also give away a few Steam keys for my games.
If you miss it, it’s gonna be recorded anyway so you can see it later.
Hey guys, EBF5 is 25% done!
So I’m gonna take a little break and work on publishing Cat Cafe on the web, and maybe on Steam too. If ya’ll remember, it’s that little idle game for phones that I made. It was up on Android, but it got taken down cause I never updated it for some new rules after months of warnings.
It’s not an amazing game, but I’m interested to see who might enjoy it (It got over 300,000 installs on Android somehow), and it’ll be 100% free, so I don’t think there’s much to complain about.
I’m also planning to put EBF3 up on Steam (also free), but that’ll be a bit more work – hopefully still not too much. I probably won’t make any changes to the game except for adding that mute button everyone wanted. Just gotta figure out how to do stuff like full screen in good old Actionscript 2.
Anyway, decent free games on Steam seem to get a lot of attention, so this is my chance to catch some eyeballs while other indie devs are putting price tags on their small 30-minute games.
Hey guys, I’ve been playing a lot of great indie games lately, and have been wanting to note down some ideas about what makes them so fun. This post is for personal reference, but I’m sure a lot of other people will find it useful too. A lot of these notes will apply to some genres of games more than others (I’m mostly thinking about single-player games here), and some of them are even in conflict with each other, but I’ll try to keep as many of them in mind as possible while working on my games.
Anyway, here’s a list of game design elements that I find are important to making entertaining and memorable games…
1. Challenge and Mastery!
I love learning and getting good at things, and I think most people do to some extent or another. Having a high skill ceiling in games is important to keeping players hooked and increasing replay value, and also creates a competitive social aspect where players try to show off their skills.
In a platformer like Super Meat Boy or 1001 Spikes, you may play the same level dozens of times before you beat it. But you’re not playing it exactly the same way every time. With each attempt you’re getting better at it – you keep finding faster paths through the level, you’re no longer distracted by objects that don’t matter, your timing begins to match the rhythm of the obstacles, and you start relying on muscle memory rather than reacting to what you see. Once you’ve beaten the level for the first time, you’ve also mastered it – you’ll easily be able to beat it again. You’ve progressed in the game not just by spending time on it, but by actually improving your skill at it, and that’s a very satisfying feeling – much more than just leveling up to overpower a boss.
And this feeling of mastery isn’t always easy to implement. It has some of the following requirements:
• The challenges in the game need to have different ways of approaching them, so the player can learn what works and what doesn’t, and can optimize their approach with each attempt.
• There needs to be clear feedback for the player to show them when they’re improving: Timers, life bars, achievements, whatever. The game mechanics must be reasonably transparent so that the player can see exactly what they’re doing wrong or right.
• There needs to be no way of cheating. If the player can lower the difficulty setting, or use some cheap trick to complete the challenge, they will!
• The challenges should not involve much random elements – the player should feel the results are totally dependant on their performance, and not down to luck.
Platformers and shoot-em-ups are good examples of skill games that I’m familiar with. I try to add a lot of room for skill in the Epic Battle Fantasy games: It’s usually much easier to try different tactical approaches than it is to spend time grinding for level ups. I try to do this by giving the player a huge choice of in-game skills and equipment that they cannot sell, the option to flee battles and re-prepare without penalty, and by making leveling up against weak enemies slow and pointless by comparison – but the option is still there for those who need it.
A lot of turn-based JRPGs don’t seem to do this, and in many of them you’re better off just grinding, which is kind of sad and makes the gameplay quite boring for me personally.
Obviously some players just want mindless fun and no challenge, and that’s fine too. Just look at the popularity of idle games! So I wouldn’t rule out an “easy mode” completely, but I’d do my best to encourage players not to use it.
2. Accessibility in Difficulty and Play Styles!
When making a game, you want it to appeal to as large an audience as it can. If you’re smart, you’ll do this without making it obvious – you don’t want players to think that they’re playing the game “wrong”, by choosing easy mode or whatever. You don’t want skilled players to think you’re dumbing down the game for casual players – you want every play style to feel correct! You don’t want to look like a lazy game designer by just changing monster stats to create different difficulty settings! (I still do this though…)
I think Shovel Knight is a good example of how to create different difficulty settings secretly:
• Huge portions of the game are completely optional – usually hard parts that you can do for extra gold. You can obtain the gold through easier means if you prefer.
• You can play it safely, or try to be greedy and take more risks - you can destroy checkpoints for cash, or choose to wear shiny gold armor that does nothing!
• You can prepare for levels by spending some time to stock up on limited-use helping items – it’s kind of like cheating, but it doesn’t feel like it because you pay for them with your gold or time. (there’s actually a long cutscene that you have to watch to get certain potions!)
• You can try different items and approaches when stuck on a level – you can either use brute force, or take your time and experiment with sneaky tricks.
As a result, the game adjusts to different play styles, without having any explicit difficulty settings, and it just feels like you can play it however you want.
Undertale is another good example, with the easy style of playing just being “do whatever you want”, and the harder ones being more specific types of gameplay: either killing everything, or killing nothing. The player isn’t explicitly told which style of playing is “correct”, they’ve got the freedom to play how they like and adjust the challenge to what they are comfortable with.
Despite all that, I think a simple difficulty setting is still better than no difficulty options at all. But please: don’t put it at the start of the game and make it unchangeable. How are new players supposed to make such an important decision?
I like challenging games when they’re a genre that I’m familiar with. But there’s many genres that I’m not very familiar with and I feel punished for not playing them correctly. An example being fighting games: I’m not going to practice enough to pull off any cool combos. I just want to play for a few hours and see some cool character animations and get some cheap thrills, but it’s hard to enjoy them when most of the mechanics take some serious dedication to learn.
While my games all have a difficulty setting, I think they also give the player a lot of options in play styles. They can grind for level ups, they can experiment with tactics, they can stock up on items, they can play levels in different orders – I think all of those are nice to have in a game and make it easier for the difficulty to balance itself. If the player gets stuck, they should have different options available to them so they don’t rage-quit out of frustration. I find it interesting to see what strategies players use in Let’s Plays – some play very safely and try to plan ahead and save up their items, while others skip all the fluff and jump right into battle.
3. Call To Exploration!
Humans are really curious creatures and we love exploring new things!
If a game manages to create a world that begs to be explored, that’s awesome!
This one’s quite simple – the game just needs to have hidden stuff the player wants to find. This is quite easy to implement in something like an RPG – where you can raid NPCs houses for hidden items or notes of dialogue. It’s a bit more work in some other genres.
A good example of exploration is Castle In The Darkness, a NES-style metroidvania game:
• Some secrets have practical use - you can find items that make your character stronger, or notes that give you useful advice. The game is made easier as a reward for exploring – but it feels fair because you put the time and effort into it.
• Some secrets do nothing but put a smile on your face – there’s hidden jokes and fleshed-out references to other games. They serve no purpose, but they show the player that the developer had a lot of fun hiding things, and motivate the player to explore further.
• Some secrets are so well hidden that the player feels an incredible amount of accomplishment for just finding them - They’ll think “wow, I wonder how many other players have found this?! I need to tell everyone about it!” It may be a tiny cracked block in the ceiling, or a very steep cliff that appears un-climbable.
Exploration isn’t limited to finding items and easter eggs. You can explore the very game mechanics too! Just look at Minecraft – you don’t get many instructions, just an endless world with many types of objects that interact with each other in complicated ways. The player naturally wants to figure out how they work, how they can be exploited or played with. So they start building ever more complicated contraptions to test what is possible, and often they’ll be surprised. I found this to be the best part of Minecraft – and once I eventually figured out how everything worked in the game, it became incredibly dull for me. If you’re making a game with many different mechanics, you should think about how you can connect them in creative but intuitive ways, without telling the player about it. They’ll feel great when they discover them. An example of this in Epic Battle Fantasy 4 is combining the poison status effect with poison absorption, therefore allowing poison to be used like a regenerative healing effect. I plan to open many more similar possibilities in EBF5.
For me personally, I think exploration is the most important thing in making an exciting and memorable game – most of my favourite games have a lot of it. Zelda, Pokemon, Mario Bros, Final Fantasy – they all have a lot of very well hidden secrets that feel great to find.
The EBF games involve a lot of exploration – but so far it has mostly been for practical purposes, and a lot of it is quite predictable. I want to put more effort into secrets that have no practical uses at all, or are uncovered in very unique and interesting ways. I want to include more hidden mechanics that aren’t explained or even mentioned in the tutorials. I want players to think “What the hell did I just find? Was I even supposed to see this? I’m so smart for figuring this out!”
I think a lot of exploration is lost when games hold the player’s hand and explain too much to them – that’s the lazy way of designing a game. That’s not to say games shouldn’t nudge the player in the right direction – but they should do it in a subtle way. The player should feel like they figured things out on their own – even if the game was secretly giving hints. Mario and Zelda were great at this: If you noticed a strangely specific configuration of blocks or boulders, you knew something was probably hidden there – and they always eased you into these concepts without explicitly telling you.
4. Make Me Feel Lots Of Things!
Humans have a lot of emotions and psychological needs that a game developer can play with, and I think a lot of games feel bland because they only focus on a few of them.
I already mentioned greed, curiosity and mastery, but here’s some others a game can exploit:
Subsistence – Gamers love food and shelter and comfort. Make them really feel the need for those in the game. Make them salivate when they collect food items. Make them feel warm and fuzzy when they see a cute animal.
Safety - Take the player in and out of dangerous or scary situations, make them crave moments when they are safe. Make them care about the safety of the other characters in the game.
Creativity and freedom - Give the player the ability to create or customize things and express themselves. Make them feel attached to the game because they created a part of it.
Love and lust – Make some attractive characters that the player wants to protect or get involved with or just stare at!
Leisure – Make some minigames or other relaxing activities that allow the player to take a break from the action so they don’t get too stressed out!
There’s a lot of different triggers you can use to make players feel things – you can find lists of emotions and needs on Wikipedia or whatever, and see how many of them your game might invoke in a player.
What’s most important though is variety – too much of anything will make it boring.
If I see a super cute game, I might assume it’s just a generic casual game for kids. But if I see something cute in an otherwise scary adult-themed game, it’s going to be much more powerful and memorable. I’m usually guilty of the opposite – my games have cute graphics but there’s the occasional adult joke, and I get hundreds of comments about how inappropriate they are.
First person shooters are boring to me because you shoot so many people that you no longer feel anything when you do it. If you give me the option to kill or spare enemies – I’ll think about my actions. If you give the enemies stories and personalities – I’ll actually feel guilty about harming them!
I think that’s the key to what made Undertale so fantastic: All the characters in the game are developed and have strong distinct personalities, and you have options in how to treat them. I don’t want to spoil anything, but you feel a lot of emotions in the game because there’s such a variety of circumstances that you have direct influence over.
I have a long way to go before I make anything like Undertale, but I do try to invoke a variety of emotional responses in players, by using: funny, serious or awkward dialogue, delicious or disgusting looking items, creatures that look anything from cute to terrifying, puzzle breaks from the action, and hot anime girls. I think something I can do better is writing more interesting characters – especially enemies and NPCs. I’d like to write characters that feel more alive – especially in battles, which can get a bit monotonous if there’s no interesting dialogue added.
5. Collecting Is Fun!
I’m not sure if collecting is something that all humans like, but a great deal of them seem to really enjoy it. I love it when game developers go out of their way to make interesting collectable items. When you pick up something new, and you see that’s it part of a set, you instinctively want to find more.
There’s tons of different collectables for all sorts of purposes: they can have practical uses (power ups, weapons), be used for bragging rights (achievements, ranks), provide extra information (bestiary, maps), provide more story (story pages), or provide busy-work (quests). Some of my favourite collectables are just artwork: concept art, character trophies, alternate costumes, background music, etc.
Collections often show that the developers put a lot of love into their game – they want you to find every item, they want you to read the description for every enemy, they want you to see the concept art that was made behind the scenes.
Even just watching pointless numbers go up can be fun, it gives you something permanent for all the time you spent messing around in a game. It’s nice to have some stats that say, “Hey, we remember all the time you spent!”
However, a lot of games go overboard with collectables. If collecting stuff is a major part of a game, it better have an incredible amount of variety to it. I feel collectables are generally better off as a progress indicator rather than a central goal – otherwise you just end up mindless idle games. Additionally, the collecting aspect can sometimes pressure a player to backtrack and hunt down items that they’ve missed, even if they don’t really want to, and this can be quite frustrating for completionists. Finding the last few items in a collection should never be a chore – a challenge is okay, but it shouldn’t be boring or tedious. Think of games that give you some sort of item map towards the end that makes finishing collections much easier.
So basically, use collectables responsibly and make sure they’re fun!
Anyway, that’s enough for now. Let me know what you think.
Hey guys, I’m pushing a little update to BH2 on Steam in a few hours. Mostly just fixing some little problems. I drew some warning signs for the levels, but I ended up not using them.
After this I’ll probably be done with BH2, and can enjoy Christmas in peace. The game hasn’t sold well so far, but it’s on a lot of wishlists, so maybe that will pick up a bit during sales. Doesn’t matter either way though, EBF4 is still selling so I’m fine.
After Christmas I can focus on finding a new home and then starting a new project!
Hey guys! Valve sent me a Steam controller a week or two back, which is pretty cool! As a lowly indie dev, I didn’t know if they would send me one, but I guess they like me enough.
I haven’t played around with it that much yet, but so far I’m having a hard time figuring out in what situations it would actually be useful.
As a normal controller it’s not very comfortable. The buttons are small and too close to the center, and the whole shape doesn’t really support them. A regular 360 style controller is much better.
As a mouse replacement it’s kind of different. I tried playing EBF4 with it for a while, and it works okay. It’s much better than using a mouse on your lap, or using a trackpad. But EBF4 is a game that doesn’t require any accurate or quick clicking. I really wouldn’t want to play anything action oriented with this thing, nor any games with really small user interface elements.
So far the only thing I’ve actually enjoyed using it for is as a remote control for videos and website browsing. It’s quite good at that – it’s got all the mouse features and a few keys on it, so you can control stuff like playback, volume, new tabs, scrolling, full screen mode, etc. easily.
Maybe if you don’t have a wireless mouse or any gaming controllers, this thing might be quite useful as an okay replacement for everything.
I’m interested to see if other people actually end up liking it, or if Valve improve the design later, because so far I’m not too impressed, but it is definitely an interesting and unique device. I’ll keep playing around with it and see if anything works out. It’s got a bit of a learning curve, and maybe I’ll get used to it if I use it some more.
Hay guys. I got a WiiU and spent the week playing through Super Mario 3D World, New Super Mario Bros and Mario Kart 8. Already picked up Hyrule Warriors and Bayonetta 2, but I think I’ll take a break before getting into those. There’s so many good games coming out recently, it’s hard to keep on top of everything. D:
I love that I can play games while playing YouTube videos on the TV. That’s great for multitasking, since I have a huge list of “Watch Later” videos which are mostly talks that don’t require my full attention.
It’s a shame that the gamepad doesn’t reach very far (I can’t use it in the bathroom :( ). The quality of the gamepad screen is also kind of meh… The video compression on it is pretty visible. But it’s still way more comfortable than any other handheld gaming device, which makes up for that.
I haven’t seen any particularly creative uses for having two screens yet, but maybe I’ll see that in some other games. Mario World did a few fun things with the touchscreen, but nothing that was a major part of the game experience.
Anyway… Although the hardware feels a bit weak, it’s great fun to use and feels much less gimmicky than the Wii, based on the few games I’ve tried so far. It’s also great to finally be able to play Nintendo games in HD. Long overdue, that. :P
PS: I’m rather infatuated with Rosalina now. I’m going to have to learn how to use her in Smash.
I recently read “How to Win Friends and Influence People” by Dale Carnegie, and I totally recommend it to anyone who has to deal with people for a living. (so just about everyone)
The short version of the book is: Be polite and empathetic towards everyone you meet, and show a genuine interest in them. Avoid arguments and be very sensitive and understanding when trying to change someone’s mind. Admit it when you’re wrong. Remember that people are emotional creatures, and that they’re motivated by their own pride and desires more than anything else. Make people feel appreciated and important.
Although the book is mainly set in the context of business transactions, I think it’s quite useful in just about any type of relationship, and I’ve been figuring out a lot of the lessons on my own over the years while dealing with people online.
Here’s some of my favorite quotes from the book:
“Remember that the people you are talking to are a hundred times more interested in their wants and problems than they are in yours.”
“Don’t criticize people; for they are just what you would be under similar circumstances.”
“Remember that we are not dealing with creatures of logic, but with creatures of emotion, bristling with prejudices and motivated by pride.”
“Be hearty in your appreciation and lavish in your praise, and people will cherish your words even long after you have forgotten them.”
“Nobody needs a smile so much as those who have none left to give.”
“Abilities wither under criticism; they blossom under encouragement.”
“It takes character and self control to be understanding and forgiving. A great man shows his greatness by how he treats little men.”